Diabetes mellitus is a general term for heterogeneous disturbances of metabolism for which the main finding is chronic hyperglycaemia. The cause is either impaired insulin secretion or impaired insulin action or both.Healthful eating helps keep your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, in your target range. Physical activity and, if needed, diabetes medicines also help. The diabetes target range is the blood glucose level suggested by diabetes experts for good health. You can help prevent health problems by keeping your blood glucose levels on target.
Type 1 Diabetes
- β-cell destruction which leads to absolute insulin deficiency
- Usually mediated by immune mechanisms
- LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) is classified as type 1 diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
- Is frequently associated with other problems of the so-called metabolic syndrome.
How can I keep my blood glucose levels on target?
You can keep your blood glucose levels on target by
- making wise food choices
- being physically active
- taking medicines if needed
For people taking certain diabetes medicines, following a schedule for meals, snacks, and physical activity is best. However, some diabetes medicines allow for more flexibility. You’ll work with your health care team to create a diabetes plan that’s best for you.
best food for diabetics
- Buy whole grain breads and cereals.
- Eat fewer fried and high-fat starches such as regular tortilla chips and potato chips, french fries, pastries, or biscuits.
- Try pretzels, fat-free popcorn, baked tortilla chips or potato chips, baked potatoes, or low-fat muffins.
- it’s better to use low-fat or fat-free plain yogurt or fat-free sour cream instead of regular sour cream on a baked potato.
- Use mustard instead of mayonnaise on a sandwich.
- Use low-fat or fat-free substitutes such as low-fat mayonnaise or light margarine on bread, rolls, or toast.
- Eat cereal with fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) milk.
- If your plan includes more than one serving at a meal, you can choose several types of vegetables or have two or three servings of one vegetable.
- Eat raw and cooked vegetables with little or no fat, sauces, or dressings.
- Add a small piece of lean ham or smoked turkey instead of fat to vegetables when cooking.
- Sprinkle with herbs and spices.
- If you do use a small amount of fat, use canola oil, olive oil, or soft margarines (liquid or tub types) instead of fat from meat, butter, or shortening.
- Eat fruits raw or cooked, as juice with no sugar added, canned in their own juice, or dried.
- Buy smaller pieces of fruit.
- Choose pieces of fruit more often than fruit juice. Whole fruit is more filling and has more fiber.
- Save high-sugar and high-fat fruit desserts such as peach cobbler or cherry pie for special occasions.
- Eat low-fat or fat-free fruit yogurt sweetened with a low-calorie sweetener.
- Use low-fat plain yogurt as a substitute for sour cream.